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2D Fluidics Pty Ltd created to launch the Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD)

Posted By Terrance Barkan, Friday, June 22, 2018

 

Advanced materials company, First Graphene Limited (“FGR” or “the Company”) (ASX: FGR) is pleased to announce the launch of its 50%-owned associate company, 2D Fluidics Pty Ltd, in collaboration with Flinders University’s newly named Flinders Institute for NanoScale Science and Technology

 

The initial objective of 2D Fluidics will be the commercialisation of the Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD), invented by the Flinders Institute for NanoScale Science and Technology’s Professor Colin Raston. The VFD enables new approaches to producing a wide range of materials such as graphene and sliced carbon nanotubes, with the bonus of not needing to use harsh or toxic chemicals in the manufacturing process (which is required for conventional graphene and shortened carbon nanotube production). 

 

This clean processing breakthrough will also greatly reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of manufacturing these new high quality super-strength carbon materials. The key intellectual property used by 2D Fluidics comprises two patents around the production of carbon nanomaterials, assigned by Flinders University. 

 

2D Fluidics will use the VFD to prepare these materials for commercial sales, which will be used in the plastics industry for applications requiring new composite materials, and by the electronics industry for circuits, supercapacitors and batteries, and for research laboratories around the world.

 

2D Fluidics will also manufacture the VFD, which is expected to become an in-demand state-of-the-art research and teaching tool for thousands of universities worldwide, and should be a strong revenue source for the new company. 

 

Managing Director, Craig McGuckin said “First Graphene is very pleased to be partnering Professor Raston and his team in 2D Fluidics, which promises to open an exciting growth path in the world of advanced materials production. Access to this remarkably versatile invention will complement FGRs position as the leading graphene company at the forefront of the graphene revolution.” 

 

Professor Colin Raston AO FAA, Professor of Clean Technology, Flinders Institute for NanoScale Science and Technology, Flinders University said “The VFD is a game changer for many applications across the sciences, engineering and medicine, and the commercialisation of the device will have a big impact in the research and teaching arena,” Nano-carbon materials can replace metals in many products, as a new paradigm in manufacturing, and the commercial availability of such materials by 2D Fluidics will make a big impact. It also has exciting possibilities in industry for low cost production where the processing is under continuous flow, which addresses scaling up - often a bottleneck issue in translating processes into industry.

Tags:  2D Fluidics  batteries  Carbon Nanotubes  circuits  Composites  electronics  First Graphene  Graphene  Plastics  research laboratories  supercapacitors  Vortex Fluidic Device (VFD) 

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Fraunhofer IPA Maps Out Its Graphene Strategy

Posted By Dexter Johnson, IEEE Spectrum, Thursday, November 30, 2017

The Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Engineering and Automation IPA uses the tagline: “We manufacture the future”.

Certainly as one of the leading research institutes in the world for the development of automotive technology, Fraunhofer has a global reputation for delivering the latest cutting edge breakthroughs in any technology associated with the automotive industry from energy storage to lightweight engineering.

Based on Fraunhofer’s titanic reputation in R&D, it was a stroke of luck that The Graphene Council was able to meet up with Fraunhofer’s Head of Functional Materials, Ivica Kolaric, at the Economist’s “The Future of Materials Summit” held in Luxembourg in mid-November.

In his role as leader of the functional material group at Fraunhofer, Kolaric has been conducting research on nanoscale carbon materials, like graphene, for almost 20 years. The aim of all this work has consistently been to produce functionalized nanoscale carbon materials to bring them to industrial applications.

Kolaric and his team have been working specifically on graphene since 2008 and have been synthesizing graphene using both chemical vapor deposition (CVD) as well as exfoliation techniques. With these various grades of graphene, the Fraunhofer researchers have experimented with a variety of applications.

“We first started with applications in the field of energy storage and transparent conductive films,” said Kolaric in an interview at the Luxembourg conference.  “As you may remember there was a big discussion a few years back going on if graphene could serve as a replacement for idium tin oxide (ITO).  But we determined that this is maybe not the right application for graphene because when you use it large areas for conductive films it’s competing with commodity products.”

Kolaric also explained that Fraunhofer had collaborated with battery manufacturer Maxell in the development of different types of energy storage devices, specifically supercapacitors. They had some success in increasing the energy density of these devices, which is an energy storage device’s ability to store a charge. With the graphene, the increased surface area of graphene did give a boost to storage capabilities but it just couldn’t deliver enough of an increase in performance over its costs, according to Kolaric.

Now Kolaric says that Fraunhofer is looking at graphene in sensor applications, in particular biosensors. “Graphene is really a perfect substrate for doping, so you can make it sensitive for any kind of biological effects,” said Kolaric. “This could make it a very good biosensor.”

But Kolaric cautions that avenues for purification have to be developed. If this and other issues can be addressed with graphene, there is the promise of a sensor technology that could be very effective at detecting gases, which currently is tricky for automotive sensors that are restricted to detecting pressure and temperature. “I think graphene can play an important role in this,” added Kolaric.

In addition to next generation sensors, Kolaric believes that graphene’s efficiency as a conductor could lead to it being what he terms an “interlink” on the submicron level. Kolaric believes that this will lead to its use in power electronics.

Kolaric added: “I would say sensors and serving as an interlink, so these are the two occasions where we think graphene can be effective.”

Tags:  biosensors  energy storage  Fraunhofer Institute  indium tin oxide  ITO  sensors  supercapacitors 

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NanoXplore Brings Unique Perspective to Graphene Production

Posted By Dexter Johnson, IEEE Spectrum, Thursday, January 26, 2017

 

After Montreal-based NanoXplore launched in 2011, its initial business was contract research in the field of carbon-based technologies. But its identity as a contract R&D company changed in 2014 when it filed a series of patents focused on graphene production.

As the company further developed its technology since then, the main focus of the company has become providing graphene-enhanced polymers for plastics that have enhanced electrical, thermal and mechanical properties.

The company website suggests that these graphene-based polymers have a variety of applications, ranging from photovoltaics to supercapacitors

We wanted to get to know how a relatively new company that started out as an R&D contractor evolved into a graphene-enhanced polymer manufacturer and how they now see the downstream market for their product. To do that, we took the opportunity of NanoXplore becoming a corporate member of The Graphene Council to talk to the company’s chief operating officer, Paul Higgins, and here is that interview.

Q: NanoXplore started out as an R&D contractor in carbon-based technologies. How is it that the company was able to file a patent in graphene production patent just two years after being formed? Were you always doing research in this area, or did you make a concerted effort to find a place in the graphene market?

Working with other carbon-based materials, especially CNTs, it became evident that many commercialization challenges were due to the production processes. The processes had been developed in research environments and were not designed from the ground up with an industrial mindset. We focused from the beginning on low cost, high-yield processes, using existing capital equipment, and with no pre- and post-processing. For example, our graphene production process functionalizes the graphene in-situ, avoiding costly functionalization post-processing for most applications. We were also very cognizant of the need for sustainable, “green” processes; our patented process is water-based, uses no strong acids, and no organic solvents.

A key insight underpinning our patents is that high energy and strong chemical processes create many downstream problems in graphene production. High-energy processes are inefficient and create defected planar structures, resulting in graphene with poor electrical and thermal benefits, in turn requiring high, non-economic loadings of graphene in nanocomposites.  Strong chemical processes require complicated post-processing and recycling processes to be cost effective and require very tightly controlled production environments, adding costs.

Once we had established the frame of potential solutions based upon the above, developing our new technology platform was relatively straightforward.

Q: Were you looking to enter a particular niche of the graphene supply chain or did the process you came up with dictate somewhat the point in the supply chain that you now occupy?

Our process is high yield, large volume, low cost, and produces graphene powder with very high quality. This allows us to target mass industrial material markets such as polymers, markets requiring large volumes of material. And due to the quality of our graphene, we can provide significant benefit to industrial materials at low loadings and viable price points.

Of course, the graphene must be effectively mixed into the polymer matrix. To do this we have developed production processes for the manufacture of graphene-enhanced plastic masterbatches. These masterbatches, which we have been manufacturing and selling since early 2016, are the perfect form factor for the plastic industry. Plastic formers, such as injection and blow molders, and compounders are very comfortable with masterbatches and easily incorporate them into their existing processes.

Q: Do you see the company evolving to develop products further up the supply chain? For instance, it appears you’re involved in energy storage technologies enabled by graphene. Is this where you see your business moving or do you see this is just diversification of your portfolio?

NanoXplore is focusing our current commercial efforts on graphene-enhanced polymers. We see this as a large market, hungry for innovative materials, where our graphene has a strong competitive advantage.

We also have a patent on a unique graphene-graphite composite material that is useful for energy storage applications. This material was the impetus for our original research in the energy field. This initial research showed great promise and leads us into development of a range of materials for Si-graphene anodes and S-graphene cathodes.

From our current polymer efforts and the emerging energy storage materials, we see a sustainable growth model for the company. Our core research efforts develop graphene-based technologies for a target market, and then transition to product development. During the transition, we will develop technologies for the next target industry. And repeat. Graphene is so broadly applicable that we foresee being able to continue in this vein for some time.

Q: How does your company envision the landscape for the graphene market evolving over the next five years, i.e. are there particular markets that will be winners and losers, what applications are not being sufficiently targeted, etc.?

The graphene market has changed significantly over the last three years. Three years ago the challenge for end users was to obtain decent material, in volume, at a reasonable price. Today there are several producers, including NanoXplore, producing large volumes of good quality graphene. Prices per kg for high quality graphene have fallen during this period from $30,000 kg to $100 Kg and are set to fall to $30 kg over the next five years.

[NB: Above and subsequent comments pertain to high quality - low defect, functionalized few layer graphene and graphene nanoplatelets. Graphene from CVD is excluded as is reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO)].

The current challenge for the graphene industry is to incorporate graphene into real-world products and industrial processes. One of the major hurdles is that graphene is sold into a supply chain, with many players between the graphene producer and the final product. And each of these players has their own calculus of risk versus benefit. To be successful the graphene producer must demonstrate benefits to each player at every step along the supply chain, while meeting standards, helping to modify processes, overcoming regulatory hurdles and minimising supply chain disruptions. The successful companies will expand to cover several steps in the supply chain – for example graphene material, polymer compounds, plastic forming – and develop partnerships with other key supply chain players.

Over the next 3-5 years, one can imagine the commercial introduction of novel graphene enabled subsystems and systems. This category of products will include strong, light weight and highly functional nanocomposites for electric transportation vehicles, greatly improved energy systems (e.g., next generation batteries), high barrier packaging, smart textiles, and others. Solutions for highly regulated industries (e.g., medical, aerospace), some being demonstrated today, will start to exit their testing regimes and enter the marketplace.

Ultimately graphene will be part of building a sustainable future, playing a significant role in the replacement of costly, single function, or scarce materials with abundant, cheaper, and higher-performing ones. It will replace multiple and occasionally toxic additives with a single multi-functional material. It will reduce weight while increasing strength for a wide range of structural polymers and composites often leading to significant fuel savings in vehicles. It will extend the useful lifetime of paints, coatings and lubricants. And it will improve thermal management and energy storage in a wide range of applications, again improving efficiency while husbanding scarce resources.

NanoXplore is very well positioned to help customers participate in this emerging new world. With the combination of high quality graphene material, expertise in mixing graphene with a wide array of industrial materials, and a team of seasoned business leaders and material scientists with broad industrial experience, NanoXplore enables customers to achieve significant and affordable product improvements with very little added graphene.

Tags:  masterbatches  photovoltaics  polymers  supercapacitors 

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From the Lab to the Financial Markets: Applied Graphene Materials Leads the Way

Posted By Dexter Johnson, IEEE Spectrum, Wednesday, January 25, 2017

 

 

Back in 2010, Karl Coleman, a professor at Durham University in the UK, spun out a company at first known as Durham Graphene Science and then later floated on the stock market (AIM) as Applied Graphene Materials (AGM). 

The word quickly spread about AGM’s approach to producing graphene. The company’s manufacturing techniques did not require either a graphite source or a metal catalyst, with the latter leading to highly pure graphene platelets with little oxygen content.

From the outset, AGM has always been considered to have a flexible position in the graphene supply chain, with their product being adaptable to the needs of their clients. The company's graphene has been proposed for applications ranging from an indium-tin oxide (ITO) replacement in flexible displays to electrode material in batteries and supercapacitors. With its first production order and commercial application announced last October, we should begin to see the company’s flexibility demonstrate itself in the coming year. 

AGM is one of the few publicly traded graphene companies, which gives it a fairly unique position to observe the developing graphene markets. As one of The Graphene Council’s newest corporate members, we had the opportunity to ask some questions of AGM’s CEO, Jon Mabbitt, to get their view of graphene’s commercial development.

Q: The development of Applied Graphene Materials from university research to an AIM-traded business is a story that many lab research groups working with graphene and other 2D materials would like to duplicate.  What were a few of the most important factors that contributed to the success of your company bridging that gap between the lab and the fab?

A: Universities provide a fantastic environment in which to be creative, but often ideas do not progress beyond a single experiment or perhaps being the topic of a research paper. In our case the close connection between the Inorganic Chemistry department at Durham University and the Technology Transfer office facilitated the opportunity for the manufacturing processes to be financially supported. Without this early stage investment the ideas would probably have gone no further, but with seed capital and self-belief the people involved at this stage were able to deliver proof-of-concept. Another significant step was that the inventor recognised they were not necessarily best placed to lead the company going forward and was comfortable enough to pass on the responsibility to an experienced growth management team.

Q: Your corporate literature describes your production of graphene as a “bottom-up” process. Is this a chemical vapor deposition process or some kind of chemical exfoliation process? And do you see your process being adapted in some way that it could be used to produce monolayer graphene for electronic or optoelectronic applications in larger capacities than they are currently?

We describe our process as “bottom up” because we synthesize our graphene and do not exfoliate it from graphite. However, this is not a CVD process because we do not require a substrate on which to deposit the vapor. It is a chemical decomposition of alcohol, which is then reassembled to create the graphene nanoplatelets.

Q: It would seem that your current business model is that of a producer of graphene dispersions that supplies different product manufacturers to further enable their products? Do you see your business model evolving over time where you move further up the supply chain and eventually you would be manufacturing the products that are sold rather than the dispersions?

Our strategy is very simple: make graphene and format it. We only want to produce graphene and supply it in a format that can be easily handled by our customers and easily incorporated into their products. It is our customers who will create end products. Clearly by this approach working extremely closely with our customers is mutually beneficial to enable the optimum results.

Q: In your own business lines, what applications are showing the most potential for growth, i.e. coatings, composites, functional fluids, etc.? And why do you think this is the case: The underlying markets did not have any solution to the issues that the graphene-enabled products offered, or the graphene-enabled product outperformed what was currently in the market?

One of the Achilles heels of start-up companies is that they try to do too much. We have identified specific areas where we know our graphene material delivers particular benefits and so for now we remain focused on those areas: coatings (barrier performance), composites (mechanical performance) and functional fluids (friction modification). All sectors are looking for improvements, normally performance enhancement or cost reductions. The particular attributes graphene brings is that you get a lot of performance for very little quantity added. The ultra-high surface area to weight ratio combined with the chemical composition and bonding regime of graphene makes it super interesting. However, not all graphene is produced equally and the method of manufacture dictates the resultant properties of the material. Also whilst graphene has several attributes they cannot all be delivered concurrently in certain applications.

Q: In your dealings with customers, what is typically their biggest reservation in adopting your graphene dispersions and how do you typically overcome these doubts?

To gain customer interest you must provide credible data to support your assertions. Industrial companies will not spend time on technology concepts that are unproven. Once we have grabbed their attention then we need to support the customer really closely – things will go wrong before they go right and so a dogged mentality is essential. You also need to demonstrate that your business will continue to exist and be able to supply the products repeatedly and consistently in the long term.

Q: What do you think the overall market for graphene needs in order to see wider development of graphene-enabled products, i.e. more defined industry standards, just more time in the market, manufacturing costs to go lower? If all of these and more, which is the most acute?

I don’t believe there is or will be a distinct market for graphene, moreover graphene can be adopted largely as an additive to enhance a range of materials across several existing market sectors. I don’t subscribe to the idea that standardization will enable acceptance. Graphene is, and will remain for many years to come, a specialty chemical and exist in many different forms. There are some issues where a common approach would be beneficial for all, such as regulatory controls and H&S. Everyone involved in graphene needs more application successes and to achieve this there needs to be a bolder commitment from producers and advisors to go and make it happen.

Tags:  graphene platelets  ITO  publicly traded  stock market  supercapacitors 

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